Unveil the secret to perfect soy milk with Palsgaard's emulsifiers and stabilisers. Elevate your soy milk production, enhancing taste and extending shelf-life. Our integrated systems, like Palsgaard® RecMilk 122 and Palsgaard® ChoMilk 173, craft creamy, stable soy milk—be it the Western style with 3% protein or the Asian style with lower protein and added sugar. With mono- and diglycerides ensuring a velvety texture and carrageenan preventing sedimentation, your soy milk stays enticingly consistent throughout its life. Palsgaard empowers your soy milk creation, delivering quality that captivates.
Soybeans have been used for human nutrition for more than 5000 years and soy milk has been known in China for at least 2000 years. Today, soybeans are an important source of protein and oil in human nutrition, especially in Asia. In other parts of the world, soy-based foods are consumed merely due to their healthy image. Several health benefits have been found in soy proteins e.g.:
Within soy products, an increasing consumption around the world is seen in soy products resembling dairy products like for instance milk, yoghurt and ice cream. These products also make up a valuable alternative for people allergic to cow's milk.
The cultivated soybean Glycine max is a member of the Leguminosae family and is related to clover and peas. It’s an annual and non-frost-tolerant plant. The seeds are contained in pods. Depending on the variety the seed size is 3600 – 8000 seeds/kg. The mature bean normally has a light yellow colour and has a moisture content of 13-14%. If the water content is higher than 13.5% the beans must be dried prior to storage; otherwise, enzyme activity is leading to oxidation of the fats.
Soybeans have approximately 40% protein, 35% carbohydrates and 20% oil calculated on the dry matter. Further, it is rich in vitamins and minerals. Soybeans contain all the essential amino acids making it a valuable protein source in human nutrition.
The starting point for soy base production can be either whole or dehulled soybeans. By dehulling, some of the bitter-tasting components are removed and further, the level of oligosaccharides is decreased, resulting in a better digestion of the final soy product. Further alkali blanching improves the inactivation of the trypsin inhibitors. From a processing point of view, alkali blanching is an advantage as it depresses foam formation during production.
Hydration of the beans prior to grinding improves the grinding efficiency and takes place during soaking or continuous blanching. Soaking promotes the formation of a beany flavour in the soy product, which is desired in some parts of the world, for instance in many of Asian countries. During blanching lipoxidases and trypsin inhibitors are inactivated. The presence of lipoxidases in the product results in the development of a beany flavour.
The grinding results in a colloid solution of the soybeans in water, also called soy slurry. The concentration of the slurry and hence the protein concentration in the soy base is determined by the bean-to-water ratio at the inlet to the grinders. The soy base containing proteins, soluble carbohydrates and oils now have to be separated from the fibre material, okara. This is done by means of a decanter centrifuge. The efficiency of the decanter is important for the yield as well as for the quality of the soy milk. For optimized yield, the moisture content in the okara should be low. Likewise, the amount of sediment in the slurry should be low to avoid chalkiness caused by insoluble particles in the final soy product. An efficient decanter removes up to 99.8% of the sedimentable solids.
For removal of undesirable volatile off-flavours giving beany flavour, the soy base is exposed to direct steam infusion heating to 140°C followed by flash cooling and vacuum deodorisation. This process not only removes the volatile off-flavours, it also inactivates the trypsin inhibitors and any enzymes not yet inactivated and which might have led to the formation of off-flavour during storage. Further, it removes air from the product which otherwise could have caused oxidation in the product.
The soy base is now ready for standardization to the desired protein content and composition by adding water and other ingredients and further processing into for instance soy milk, soy drink, yoghurt and ice cream.
The first step in the production of soy milk is the standardization and formulation of the soy milk base. Basically, two different types of soy milk are produced:
The Western-style resembles dairy milk when looking at the protein content, as soy milk is seen as an alternative to cow’s milk. The product typically contains approx. 3% protein, 2% oil and 2% carbohydrates. It may be fortified with e.g. calcium and vitamins. It is used for drinking as well as for cooking, which is challenging the technological properties of the product. Further, flavoured versions such as chocolate and vanilla soy milk are often seen.
The Asian-style soy milk is more of a beverage with lower protein content, down to 1% and a higher sugar level; 5-10% added sugar is quite common. As for the Western style, the beverages may be fortified as well as flavoured.
Nowadays, a large part of the industrially produced soy milk is produced by means of the UHT process and aseptic filling, thereby obtaining a long shelf-life at room temperature. This puts a great demand on the stability of the product as a homogeneous product throughout the entire shelf-life is necessary for the consumer’s acceptance of the product. Direct as well as indirect UHT systems may be applied. From a stability as well as from a sensory point of view direct systems are preferred. Direct systems result in fewer chemical changes in the product due to a lower total heat load and extraction of oxygen from the product in the vacuum chamber. The indirect system is, however, often preferred due to lower investment and running costs.
Whichever UHT system is used, the application of emulsifiers and stabilisers in soy milk and soy milk beverages is necessary. The products are emulsions of oil in water and for ensuring optimal emulsion stability, i.e. reducing creaming, during the entire shelf-life, not only proper homogenization but also the addition of selected emulsifiers and stabilisers is necessary. Further, the stabilisers improve the stability of the proteins minimizing sedimentation during the storage of the soy product.
The functionality of the emulsifiers and stabilisers is described below.
For use in soy milk and soy drinks, Palsgaard has developed the integrated emulsifier and stabiliser system Palsgaard® RecMilk 122 which includes mono- and diglycerides and carrageenan as the main stabiliser. If the soy milk contains particles, for instance in soy chocolate milk and soy chocolate drink, which have to be dispersed Palsgaard® ChoMilk 173 has to be used. Palsgaard® ChoMilk 173 also includes mono- and diglycerides and carrageenan, however, the composition is adjusted to stabilise the particles in the drink.
Take advantage of Palsgaard's unique insights into plant-based consumer trends and specific local requirements, and choose Palsgaard for your next innovation project. Our experienced food
technologists are experts at solving challenges within sensory requirements, shelf-life stability, sedimentation control, water retention and emulsion stability. Not to mention equipment limitations or ingredient availability – and they’re happy to share their know-how.
With application centres in Denmark, Mexico, Singapore, China and Türkiye, help is never far away.
As part of our service, we’re happy to share our series of start-up recipes for vegan drinks, plant-based tea lattes, milk-alternative beverages and coffee creamers and plant-based yoghurts. All were tested on a variety of plant-bases ranging from almonds, nuts, oats, peas, coconut, rice, soybeans, sesame and more.